Gilead Sciences, Inc. today announced that the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion for sacituzumab govitecan as monotherapy indicated for adult patients with unresectable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who have received two or more prior systemic therapies, at least one of them for advanced disease. The final European Commission decision on the Marketing Authorization Application for sacituzumab govitecan is anticipated later in 2021.
TNBC is the most aggressive type of breast cancer and accounts for approximately 15% of all breast cancers. It is more frequently diagnosed in younger and premenopausal women and is more prevalent in Black and Hispanic women. The five-year survival rate for this sub-type is 12%, compared with 28% for other breast cancer types, and these poor outcomes are often coupled with a significant decrease in quality of life, especially in relapsed/refractory disease. Sacituzumab govitecan is a first-in-class Trop-2 directed antibody-drug conjugate. Trop-2 is a protein located on the surface of cells and is overexpressed in TNBC and many other tumors.
“Effective treatment options are extremely limited for patients with metastatic TNBC, especially once they progress. We are encouraged by this CHMP positive opinion for sacituzumab govitecan, as we are now one step closer to bringing this much needed treatment option to patients across Europe,” said Merdad Parsey, MD, PhD, Chief Medical Officer, Gilead Sciences. “We look forward to the final decision by the EMA and the potential for sacituzumab govitecan to become a new standard of care for use as a second-line option.”
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The positive opinion is supported by results from the Phase 3 ASCENT study, where sacituzumab govitecan showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful 57% reduction in the risk of disease worsening or death and improved median progression-free survival (PFS) to 4.8 months from 1.7 months seen with physician’s choice of chemotherapy alone among all randomized patients, which included those with and without brain metastases (HR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.35-0.54; p<0.0001). Sacituzumab govitecan also reduced the risk of death by 49% and improved median overall survival to 11.8 months vs. 6.9 months with physician’s choice of chemotherapy (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.41-0.62; p<0.0001). The most common Grade 3 or higher adverse reactions were neutropenia (49.5%), leukopenia (12.0%), diarrhea (10.7%), anemia (10.1%), febrile neutropenia (6.6%), fatigue (5.2%), hypophosphatemia (5.2%), nausea (4.1%) and vomiting (3.0%). The sacituzumab govitecan U.S. Prescribing Information has a BOXED WARNING for severe or life-threatening neutropenia and severe diarrhea; see below for Important Safety Information.
Sacituzumab govitecan (under the trade name Trodelvy®) is approved in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States in metastatic TNBC, and review is also underway in Singapore and China through Everest Medicines.
About the ASCENT Study
The ASCENT study is a global, open-label, randomized Phase 3 study that enrolled more than 500 patients across 230 study locations. The study evaluated the efficacy and safety of sacituzumab govitecan compared with a single-agent chemotherapy of the physician’s choice in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic TNBC who had received at least two prior systemic treatments. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either sacituzumab govitecan or a chemotherapy chosen by the patient’s treating physician. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS, as determined by blinded independent central review) in patients without brain metastases. Secondary endpoints included: PFS for full study population or intention-to-treat (ITT) population, overall survival in both the ITT population and in the subgroup without brain metastasis, independently determined objective response rate, duration of response, time to onset of response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1), quality of life and safety.
About Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)
TNBC is the most aggressive type of breast cancer and accounts for approximately 15% of all breast cancers. TNBC is diagnosed more frequently in younger and premenopausal women and is more prevalent in Black and Hispanic women. TNBC cells do not have estrogen and progesterone receptors and have limited human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Due to the nature of TNBC, effective treatment options are extremely limited compared with other breast cancer types. TNBC has a higher chance of recurrence and metastases than other breast cancer types. The average time to metastatic recurrence for TNBC is approximately 2.6 years compared with 5 years for other breast cancers, and the relative five-year survival rate is much lower. Among women with metastatic TNBC, the five-year survival rate is 12%, compared with 28% for those with other types of metastatic breast cancer.
About Sacituzumab Govitecan
Sacituzumab govitecan is a first-in-class antibody and topoisomerase inhibitor conjugate directed to the Trop-2 receptor, a protein overexpressed in multiple types of epithelial tumors, including metastatic TNBC and metastatic urothelial cancer (UC), where high expression is associated with poor survival and relapse. Beyond the approvals of sacituzumab govitecan in the United States, it is also approved for metastatic TNBC in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and Switzerland for adults with metastatic TNBC. Sacituzumab govitecan is also under multiple regulatory reviews worldwide, including the EU, as well as in Singapore and China through our partner Everest Medicines. Sacituzumab govitecan continues to be developed for potential use in other TNBC and metastatic UC populations and is also being developed as an investigational treatment for hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Additional evaluation across multiple solid tumors is also underway.
Important Safety Information for Sacituzumab Govitecan as Included in the U.S. Prescribing Information for Trodelvy
Recommendations for the use of sacituzumab govitecan in the EU (including final safety information for prescribers) have been assessed as part of the Marketing Authorization Application and will be detailed in full in the final EU SmPC.
Recommendations for the use of sacituzumab govitecan in other countries outside of the U.S. are detailed in the local prescribing information or are being assessed as part of the Marketing Authorization Application.
WARNING: NEUTROPENIA AND DIARRHEA
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Neutropenia: Severe, life-threatening, or fatal neutropenia can occur and may require dose modification. Neutropenia occurred in 61% of patients treated with Trodelvy. Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 47% of patients. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 7%. Withhold Trodelvy for absolute neutrophil count below 1500/mm3 on Day 1 of any cycle or neutrophil count below 1000/mm3 on Day 8 of any cycle. Withhold Trodelvy for neutropenic fever.
Diarrhea: Diarrhea occurred in 65% of all patients treated with Trodelvy. Grade 3-4 diarrhea occurred in 12% of patients. One patient had intestinal perforation following diarrhea. Neutropenic colitis occurred in 0.5% of patients. Withhold Trodelvy for Grade 3-4 diarrhea and resume when resolved to ≤Grade 1. At onset, evaluate for infectious causes and if negative, promptly initiate loperamide, 4 mg initially followed by 2 mg with every episode of diarrhea for a maximum of 16 mg daily. Discontinue loperamide 12 hours after diarrhea resolves. Additional supportive measures (e.g., fluid and electrolyte substitution) may also be employed as clinically indicated. Patients who exhibit an excessive cholinergic response to treatment can receive appropriate premedication (e.g., atropine) for subsequent treatments.
Hypersensitivity and Infusion-Related Reactions: Serious hypersensitivity reactions including life-threatening anaphylactic reactions have occurred with Trodelvy. Severe signs and symptoms included cardiac arrest, hypotension, wheezing, angioedema, swelling, pneumonitis, and skin reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions within 24 hours of dosing occurred in 37% of patients. Grade 3-4 hypersensitivity occurred in 2% of patients. The incidence of hypersensitivity reactions leading to permanent discontinuation of Trodelvy was 0.3%. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions was 0.3%. Pre-infusion medication is recommended. Observe patients closely for hypersensitivity and infusion-related reactions during each infusion and for at least 30 minutes after completion of each infusion. Medication to treat such reactions, as well as emergency equipment, should be available for immediate use. Permanently discontinue Trodelvy for Grade 4 infusion-related reactions.
Nausea and Vomiting: Nausea occurred in 66% of all patients treated with Trodelvy and Grade 3 nausea occurred in 4% of these patients. Vomiting occurred in 39% of patients and Grade 3-4 vomiting occurred in 3% of these patients. Premedicate with a two or three drug combination regimen (e.g., dexamethasone with either a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist or an NK1 receptor antagonist as well as other drugs as indicated) for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Withhold Trodelvy doses for Grade 3 nausea or Grade 3-4 vomiting and resume with additional supportive measures when resolved to Grade ≤1. Additional antiemetics and other supportive measures may also be employed as clinically indicated. All patients should be given take-home medications with clear instructions for prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting.
Increased Risk of Adverse Reactions in Patients with Reduced UGT1A1 Activity: Patients homozygous for the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1)*28 allele are at increased risk for neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and anemia and may be at increased risk for other adverse reactions with Trodelvy. The incidence of Grade 3-4 neutropenia was 67% in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*28, 46% in patients heterozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele and 46% in patients homozygous for the wild-type allele. The incidence of Grade 3-4 anemia was 25% in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele, 10% in patients heterozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele, and 11% in patients homozygous for the wild-type allele. Closely monitor patients with known reduced UGT1A1 activity for adverse reactions. Withhold or permanently discontinue Trodelvy based on clinical assessment of the onset, duration and severity of the observed adverse reactions in patients with evidence of acute early-onset or unusually severe adverse reactions, which may indicate reduced UGT1A1 function.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on its mechanism of action, Trodelvy can cause teratogenicity and/or embryo-fetal lethality when administered to a pregnant woman. Trodelvy contains a genotoxic component, SN-38, and targets rapidly dividing cells. Advise pregnant women and females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Trodelvy and for 6 months after the last dose. Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Trodelvy and for 3 months after the last dose.
In the ASCENT study (IMMU-132-05), the most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥25%) were fatigue, neutropenia, diarrhea, nausea, alopecia, anemia, constipation, vomiting, abdominal pain, and decreased appetite. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (SAR) (>1%) were neutropenia (7%), diarrhea (4%), and pneumonia (3%). SAR were reported in 27% of patients, and 5% discontinued therapy due to adverse reactions. The most common Grade 3-4 lab abnormalities (incidence ≥25%) in the ASCENT study were reduced neutrophils, leukocytes, and lymphocytes.
In the TROPHY study (IMMU-132-06), the most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥25%) were diarrhea, fatigue, neutropenia, nausea, any infection, alopecia, anemia, decreased appetite, constipation, vomiting, abdominal pain, and rash. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (SAR) (≥5%) were infection (18%), neutropenia (12%, including febrile neutropenia in 10%), acute kidney injury (6%), urinary tract infection (6%), and sepsis or bacteremia (5%). SAR were reported in 44% of patients, and 10% discontinued due to adverse reactions. The most common Grade 3-4 lab abnormalities (incidence ≥25%) in the TROPHY study were reduced neutrophils, leukocytes, and lymphocytes.
UGT1A1 Inhibitors: Concomitant administration of Trodelvy with inhibitors of UGT1A1 may increase the incidence of adverse reactions due to potential increase in systemic exposure to SN-38. Avoid administering UGT1A1 inhibitors with Trodelvy.
UGT1A1 Inducers: Exposure to SN-38 may be substantially reduced in patients concomitantly receiving UGT1A1 enzyme inducers. Avoid administering UGT1A1 inducers with Trodelvy.
Source: Gilead Sciences
Date: Oct 15, 2021
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